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Database design


It produces a data model of a database and could be used to explain the complete database system. Database design can also be applied to the whole procedure of designing. A few common, but important terms that are included in a database design are columns, tables, and rows.


Database design plays an important role in the database system, but can be a forgotten section in the data applications. Good database designs help groups generate better applications. A motto that database designs use in this process is to “measure twice, cut once.”

To do a database design, it contains various stages, which is done by a designer. The important procedures that the designer must do are:

-Figure out the connection between the other data elements
-Assemble and lay an arrangement upon the data

Also, database designers include the principles of normalization when designing a database. Normalization has four key steps:

            1. The minimization of data redundancy

            2. The minimization of data restructuring

            3. The minimization of I/O by reduction of transaction sizes

            4. Enforcing the referential integrity

A person should have knowledge about the database design to determine where the data should be stored. After a designer has been informed of where the data is stored within the database, they need to figure out how several of the data are related to each other, which is a process known as conceptual schema. A conceptual schema, also known as a conceptual data model, is a map of various concepts and how they are related. When organizing information, it is recommended that it should be broken down into little sections.


  • It includes an entity, which gathers things that are related to a user’s database. Entity names are in cap and in singular form. Its corresponding part is a database table
  • Has an attribute and its corresponding part is a database column. The entity names are in lower case letters.
  • It contains a primary key, which needs to be effective and non-intelligent. Database designers are better off by making an artificial key.
  • Finally, a relationship is a link that involves two entities. Relationships are usually “one-to-many” type.
  • Another type of relationship is called the “many-to-many.” These types need to be taken care of to clear away data redundancy. A cross-reference entity might be made to take care of “many-to-many” issues or problems.
  • When a primary key is present in an entity, a foreign key will also be present. To preserve a foreign key is called a referential integrity.
  • Relationships with two entities could be known as identifying or non-identifying. An identifying relationship is when a primary key of a parent entity is together with a child entity. A non-identifying relationship is the same process as an identifying relationship, but it does not contain the primary key.
  • Cardinality is a better understanding of the child and parent entity. The types of cardinality include:

            -One to zero or more

            -One to one or more

            -One to zero or one

            -One to exactly N


A quality database design helps reduce time to complete projects, which leads to lower project expenses. Making a database design benefit groups and teams because they have a better understanding on the user’s requirements. Database designs give users precise current information. Knowing the process on how to create a database design will be a benefit for anyone because it is a great way to organize information.


Microsoft Office Online: Database design basics

SQL Team